What Occurs Durning Each Protein Synthesis's Step and Where in the Cell Does Each Step Happen?

What occurs durning each protein synthesis's step and where in the cell does each step happen?

What Occurs Durning Each Protein Synthesis's Step and Where in the Cell Does Each Step Happen? 1

The central dogma of biology is that DNA-->RNA-->protein That is DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) encodes the proteins, or rather the order of the amino acids of the protein. Amino acids are the building block of proteins. (The DNA also has other functions such as regulatory and structural functions, for example). In the nucleus of the cell, the DNA is transcribed into mRNA (messenger RiboNucleic Acid). The mRNA molecules are transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where they attach to the ribosomes, which are the "protein factories" of the cell. The ribosome uses the mRNA as the "instruction" for which order to put together the amino acids. This process creates a polypeptide or protein, but typically the protein is not mature right after it has been produced by the ribosome. Additional processes including something called "folding" is required to make the mature protein. Also, the protein may need to be transported to the right part of the cell, and may have to be integrated with other components, for example other peptides/proteins, lipids, carbohydrates or other biomolecules.

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explain the Process Of Protein Synthesis?

1. Transcription occurs in the nucleus, and only one strand of DNA used,. 2. Helicase unwinds double-stranded DNA. 3. Topoisomerase helps ease the supercoiling in the DNA ahead of the replication fork. 4. RNA polymerase attaches to one of the DNA strands and transcribes DNA to messenger RNA. 1. Translation occurs at the ribosomes after the mRNA leaves the nucleus. 2. tRNA have anti-codon and carry appropriate amino acids. 3. transfar RNA pairs with mRNA and codon-anti-codon binding occurs. 4. The mRNA and translated to protein, then protein folding occurs. May not be 100% accurate. =)

What Occurs Durning Each Protein Synthesis's Step and Where in the Cell Does Each Step Happen? 2

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Can someone explain how protein synthesis works?

Protein synthesis is achieved through a combination of steps. 1) Transcription 2) Translation 3) protein folding and organisation TRANSLATION - This is split into 3 processes: 1) Intiation - An enzyme (RNA polymerase) binds to the double helix of DNA and begins to split the strands in two. Now there are two separate strands. One acts as a template strand giving the correct code to work from and because it is no longer attached to the other strand it can be easily are ad'. Spare nucleotides in the surrounding solution begin to pair to the nucleotides on the template strand (in the correct pair i.e. Adenine with Thymine and Guanine with Cytosine). 2) Elongation - Spare nucleotides continue to add to the growing 'new' strand by the same method until the whole length of DNA has been are ad' 3) Temination - There are certain codes on the template strand that tell the new strand to stop growing. You now have a new strand of nucleotides that correspond to the original DNA strand. This new strand is known as messengerRNA (mRNA). All this occurs in the nucleus where the DNA is kept. The next step (translation) moves out of the nucleus and occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. 2)TRANSLATION - Now you have a new strand of nucleotide bases (your mRNA). However proteins are not made of nucleotide subunits. Proteins are made of amino acid subunits. So translation is the process by which the nucleotide strand acts as a template to make a corresponding amino acid strand. This is done with a new type of RNA called transferRNA (tRNA). Each tRNA molecule is structured so that at one end there is a specific amino acid and at the other end theres the matching nucleotide code that specifies that amino acid. The mRNA strand begins to feed into the tRNA molecule and the tRNA molecule takes over the job of reading the mRNA and finding the correct corresponding amino acid. As it finds more and more the tRNA connects each amino acid together until a simple protein is formed. HOW DOES THE tRNA 'READ' THE mRNA? The mRNA molecule can be thought of as a paragraph from a book and every word in the book codes for an amino acid. Every 'word' is 3 letters long i.e. 3 nucleotides long and each 'word' is knwon as a 'codon'. So every 3 nucleotides i.e. every codon codes for a specific amino acid. The tRNA molecule is very clever and reads the mRNA just like an imaginary book before converting it into'amino acid' language. 3) PROTEIN FOLDING AND ORGANISATION Once you have a single linear strand of amino acids the chain begins to fold and organise into the correct protein. Obviously this is an extremely complex process and iv tried to word it as simply as possible but trust me it will just 'click' one day and you will get it! Many many enzymes are involved in all these processes. All can be evaluated by the central dogma of biology which describes how a gene creates a protein (follow the diagram from top to bottom): DNA (Transcription) RNA (Translation) PROTEIN I really hope this helps! By looking at appropriate diagrams i.e. of tRNA etc you will understand much better!

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