What EMC Design Needs to Be Considered for Electronic Product Systems

The EMC design of the product needs to be comprehensively designed from the overall system architecture design, module and board design. Firstly, according to the product requirements, the technical indexes of product EMC design are determined. The EMC design technical index from product requirements is used as the input of EMC design. According to the EMC index, the overall system architecture, module and board design are comprehensively designed. For example, for railway products using European standard cabinets, the following aspects of EMC design need to be considered:

(1) Electromagnetic compatibility design of cabinet structure parts: the cabinet structure adopts anti-static shielding cabinet with integral continuous impedance. There must be no gap between each component of the cabinet, and the gap of each structural member in the cabinet shall be filled with conductive cotton or anti-static spring strip. All movable parts such as front and rear doors, side doors, top and bottom of the cabinet are connected with reliable grounding screws through braided copper strips with a width of not less than 10mm. In order to ensure the reliable grounding of the shielding layer of the shielded cable led out from the inside of the cabinet, a spring-shaped annular shielding layer grounding device must be set at the bottom or top of the cabinet.

(2) EMC design of wiring inside the cabinet: a low-pass filter is set at the power input port to achieve two functions: one is to prevent the high-frequency interference introduced by the external environment through the power input port from entering the equipment, and the other is to prevent the interference generated inside the equipment from being output to the public power line through the power line, resulting in the pollution of the power line. This measure is beneficial to the radiation emission, surge, lightning and other tests of the power port. Setting CRCC certified power lightning arrester at the power port for common mode and differential mode lightning protection can have a good effect on restraining external surge, pulse group and lightning pulse interference. In addition, in order to prevent the short circuit of the equipment connected to the power input or output port from affecting the external power supply, an air switch or thermal magnetic circuit breaker is set at the input or output power port for short circuit protection. The signal line leading out of the cabinet must adopt the shielded cable with dense shielding layer, the shielding layer is grounded at the cabinet side, and the signal port shall be equipped with CRCC certified signal lightning arrester for common mode and differential mode lightning protection. When wiring inside the cabinet, the power line and signal line must be routed on both sides separately. If the wiring on both sides cannot be separated, at least ensure that the signal line and power line cannot be bound together, and the distance between signal line and power line shall be more than 20mm. During power line wiring, the power lines at the input end and output end of the low-pass filter must be routed separately. If there is overlap, try to cross wiring or ensure that the spacing between them is greater than 20mm. Close parallel wiring and binding them together in parallel are prohibited. In addition, in order to prevent the high-frequency interference signal in the signal port output equipment or suppress the high-frequency interference signal introduced into the signal port by the external environment through the signal line, a ferrite magnetic ring is sleeved on the shielding line at the front end of the signal port in the cabinet, and finally the shielding line is wound on the ferrite magnetic ring for one or two turns, which has a better effect. This measure has a good suppression effect on pulse group, surge, lightning and inductive interference.

(3) EMC design of chassis: the chassis adopts anti-static measures similar to CPCI chassis. In order to ensure continuous impedance between chassis structural parts, the gap of chassis mechanism parts shall be filled with conductive cotton or anti-static conductive spring strip, and the chassis must be provided with good grounding screws. Connect to the cabinet ground wire through the ground wire. The fan hot hole size of the upper and lower cover plates of the chassis shall be determined according to the EMC test effect.

(4) Electromagnetic compatibility design of PCB: different PCB laminated structures, wiring methods and protective circuits are used to inhibit the provision of electromagnetic compatibility on the printed board. For example, the reset signal line is set on the internal electric layer, and the reset signal line is as short as possible. If conditions permit, two ground wires can be arranged on both sides of the reset signal line in parallel. The differential signal line shall be wired in equal length and at the same distance, and the differential line impedance shall be controlled (the USB differential line impedance shall be controlled at 90 ohms, and other differential lines without special requirements shall be controlled at 100 ohms). During DDR2 wiring, measures such as differential clock signal line, address line and data line are taken. In addition, signal integrity shall be adopted as much as possible

(5) And power integrity design tools to ensure that the power distribution network of PCB design meets the design requirements of signal integrity and power integrity. During circuit design, the external interface wiring of PCB board cannot be wired in the PCB layer (top layer or bottom layer) corresponding to the pin lead length, which is used to suppress the interference signal introduced through the interface pin lead to interfere with other pins. Isolation and electrostatic protection measures shall be taken for the external interface circuit of PCB to protect the fragile circuit inside PCB. For the fragile circuit inside the PCB, the shield can be added for further protection, and the shield must be grounded.

What EMC Design Needs to Be Considered for Electronic Product Systems 1

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