Exclusive: Panasonic Aims to Boost Energy Density in Tesla Batteries by 20% - Executive

Exclusive: Panasonic aims to boost energy density in Tesla batteries by 20% - executive

Exclusive: Panasonic Aims to Boost Energy Density in Tesla Batteries by 20% - Executive 1

TOKYO (Reuters) - Panasonic Corp 6752.T plans to boost the energy density of "2170" battery cells it supplies to Tesla Inc TSLA.O by 20% in five years and commercialize a cobalt-free version "in two to three years", the head of its U.S. EV battery business said. This is the first time Panasonic, a leading cell provider for the world's top electric vehicle (EV) maker Tesla, has outlined these targets, putting down a marker in a highly competitive sector to stay ahead of the game. Panasonic introduced the "2170" lithium-ion cells, with the nickel-cobalt-aluminium (NCA) cathode chemistry, for Tesla's Model 3 in 2017. Researchers say it already has the highest energy density at above 700 watt-hour per litre. With an even higher density, these cells could help increase how much an EV can run on a single charge, while also paving the way for smaller batteries and roomier car interiors. A cobalt-free version on the other hand would cut reliance on a costly and controversial component, which makes batteries stable but poses ethical issues given controversial labour conditions in top producer the Democratic Republic of Congo. Tesla CEO Elon Musk has long said he wants to move to zero-cobalt battery cells. Panasonic has already cut cobalt content to under 5% in the NCA cathode and plans to improve its batteries in stages, its U.S. EV battery chief Yasuaki Takamoto told Reuters. But the firm has declined to link its battery roadmap to Tesla's future models. Panasonic recently lost its status as Tesla's exclusive battery supplier. The U.S. firm has partnered with South Korea's LG Chem 051910.KS and China's CATL 300750.SZ. CATL is supplying Tesla with low-cost lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries that contain no cobalt. According to Takamoto, the average density of LFP battery cells is less than half the level of Panasonic's latest NCA batteries. He did not name any companies. Panasonic has already developed technologies resulting in a more than 5% increase in the energy density of "2170" cells. From September, the firm will start converting lines at its factory in Nevada that it operates with Tesla as it prepares to further boost the energy density of the cells, Takamoto said. To control safety risks associated with higher density and less cobalt, Panasonic is adjusting the composition and design for better thermal stability, Takamoto said. He also noted there will be various battery requirements coming into play as EV usage diversifies. Tesla's Musk has promised to reveal significant battery advances during a "Battery Day" presentation scheduled for Sept 22. Tesla plans to introduce an EV battery that will last one million miles later this year or early next, which it jointly developed with CATL.

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Magnetostatic energy density — derivation without introducing inductance?

You can certainly do the derivation without resorting to the inductance. When it comes about to consider the contributions of induced electromotive forces $V_i$ you can consider that $$ V_i=-fracdPhidt $$ where $Phi$ is the flux of the magnetic field $B$ through the surface of the circuit you are considering. You can find a derivation according to this line of reasoning in the text from Stratton.

Exclusive: Panasonic Aims to Boost Energy Density in Tesla Batteries by 20% - Executive 2

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CORRECTION - NanoGraf Reaches Energy-Density Milestone for its Lithium-Ion Battery Material

The announcement follows a period of rapid growth for the company. Last year, the U.S. Department of Defense awarded NanoGraf to develop longer-lasting lithium-ion batteries to power U.S. military equipment. On July 17, 2019, the United States Advanced Battery Consortium LLC (USABC), a subsidiary of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), announced the award of a $7.5 million electric vehicle battery research and development contract to NanoGraf. This contract award was enabled by a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy.

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Do quantum fluctuations cause variations in energy density across space?

Yes.Though in fact my answer is going to be essentially the same as the previous answer by The_Sympathizer just with a different interpretation of what exactly you are asking.The key point I want to make is the same as the one The_Sympathizer makes. The quantum field is not fluctuating. However measurements of the quantum field will in general return fluctuating results. You need to read my answer to Are vacuum fluctuations really happening all the time? for the detailed explanation of this. If you are measuring the energy of a system that is not in an energy eigenstate then your measurement will return one of the energy eigenvalues of the system at random.How exactly this happens depends on your preferred interpretation of the measurement process, and I do not want to go into that here. However the end result is that if observers in your universe are making measurements of the energy density they will in general get fluctuating measurements.It is very important to be clear the fluctuations are in the measurement process not the quantum field, but regardless of this those fluctuations are quite real. I give an example in the answer linked above of an experiment where these fluctuations are detectable as electrical noise.From the comments it's clear that the OP is interested in how the primordial fluctuations arose at the end of inflation. The related question Do quantum fluctuations in the inflaton field lead to fluctuations in the potential energy density? is mentioned. In particular this article by Ethan Siegel is mentioned, and specifically his comments:If you then require inflation to have the properties that all quantum fields have: - that its properties have uncertainties inherent to them - that the field is described by a wavefunction - and the values of that field can spread out over timeWe need to be clear that the mechanism by which inflation occurred is unknown. We do not know what caused the inflaton field nor how it decayed to its ground state as inflation ended. However that decay is roughly analogous to a measurement process, that is in principle the inflaton field can exist in a superposition of the excited and ground states entangled with the other quantum fields that the inflaton can interact with. However we expect that this will decohere then collapse in accordance whatever interpretation of quantum mechanics you favour. This collapse will be random so we expect that it will produce different results in spatially separated parts of the universe i.e. it will produce the primordial fluctuations.As I emphasise at the start of my answer this is not fluctuations in the inflaton field, it is fluctuations in the interaction of the inflaton field with other quantum fields. Nevertheless it does produce fluctuations in the observed energy density.Though Siegel does not make it clear (his article was, after all, a popular science article) it seems likely to me that this is what he meant.

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